This course explores the struggle of Protestantism to survive amidst repeated upheavals in Early Modern Europe -- the historical context for the birth of Quakerism in the mid 1600s and of the Brethren movement in the early 1700s.  Topics include the religious, social, and political situations in Great Britain, Germany, and the Netherlands; the Reformation legacy; Puritanism; the Civil War era in England; the founding of Pennsylvania; and the rise of German Pietism and Radical Pietism in conflict with Protestant Orthodoxy.  Particular theological questions include the role of eschatology, the influence of mysticism, the place of Anabaptism, the ideas of the Philadelphian Society, the teachings of key leaders such as George Fox and Alexander Mack, and the distinctive beliefs and practices of the early Brethren.

Prerequisite: one course in history or theology, or permission of the instructor.