This course explores the struggle of Protestantism to survive amidst repeated upheavals in Early Modern Europe -- the historical context for the birth of Quakerism in the mid 1600s and of the Brethren movement in the early 1700s.  Topics include the religious, social, and political situations in Great Britain, Germany, and the Netherlands; the Reformation legacy; Puritanism; the Civil War era in England; the founding of Pennsylvania; and the rise of German Pietism and Radical Pietism in conflict with Protestant Orthodoxy.  Particular theological questions include the role of eschatology, the influence of mysticism, the place of Anabaptism, the ideas of the Philadelphian Society, the teachings of key leaders such as George Fox and Alexander Mack, and the distinctive beliefs and practices of the early Brethren.


Prerequisite: one course in history or theology, or permission of the instructor.


This online course continues the overview of the history of Christianity from the Reformation to the present.Topics of study include the Magisterial Reformation, the Radical Reformation, Roman Catholic reform, Protestant Orthodoxy, Pietism, and the Evangelical Awakening, the impact of Enlightenment rationalism, missionary expansion, Protestant liberalism and fundamentalism, the ecumenical movement, Christianity in developing countries and the Christian decline in the industrialized West.

This online course continues the overview of the history of Christianity from the Reformation to the present.Topics of study include the Magisterial Reformation, the Radical Reformation, Roman Catholic reform, Protestant Orthodoxy, Pietism, and the Evangelical Awakening, the impact of Enlightenment rationalism, missionary expansion, Protestant liberalism and fundamentalism, the ecumenical movement, Christianity in developing countries and the Christian decline in the industrialized West.

When most members of the church read the Bible, they do so in their native language, which in this country is predominantly English. However, none of the Scriptures were originally written in any modern language. The early church read the New Testament and the Hebrew Bible primarily in the Koine dialect of Greek. While today was have many translations of the Bible, reading the original languages can give us a clearer understanding of what might have been meant by the authors. At the same time, understanding the Greek behind the modern translations can also help us know when the original texts have different meanings that the English being used. This is not to say that translators are wrong, but rather to help us understand that translation is an art more than a science. This course will continue to build on the foundations for reading the Koine Greek of the New Testament and the Septuagint, and early translation of the Hebrew Bible.

This course will not be taught as a traditional lecture course. Instead, there will be a series of video and written lectures for students to watch/read alongside the text outside of class. Students will be expected to take a short quiz online in Moodle each week over the vocabulary and grammar covered in the texts. These quizzes will help me know what needs further explanation in the class review sessions. In class, we will first review the materials from the textbook and lectures, then work together though the exercises in the textbook, supplemented with readings from the New Testament and Septuagint. After class, students will complete the exercises, turning in a portion of them the following week. This format attempts to shift the active portions of learning (doing the exercises) into time with the instructor, as such active learning activities have been shown to be more effective at long-term student learning through numerous educational studies.